Hands, whether gloved or ungloved, are one of the main means of spreading infection and for transferring microbial contamination. The utilization of hand disinfectants is the main procedure for good contamination control for personnel working in hospital environments, or those involved in aseptic processing and within cleanrooms. Although there are many various kinds of hand sanitizers available you will find differences using their effectiveness and several do not meet up with the European standard for hand sanitization.
Personnel working in hospitals and cleanrooms carry various kinds of microorganisms on their hands and such microorganisms could be readily transferred from one individual to another or from person to equipment or critical surfaces. Such microorganisms are either present on the skin not multiplying (transient flora, that may include a variety of environmental microorganisms like Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) or are multiplying microorganisms released from the skin (residential flora like the genera of Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and Propionibacterium). Of the 2 groups, residential flora are far more difficult to remove. For critical operations, some protection is afforded by wearing gloves. However gloves are not suitable for all activities and gloves, or even regularly sanitized or if they are of an unsuitable design, will get and transfer contamination.
Therefore, the sanitization of hands (either gloved or ungloved) is a significant part of contamination control either in hospitals, to prevent staff-to-patient cross contamination or ahead of undertaking clinical or surgical procedures; and for aseptic preparations just like the dispensing of medicines. Moreover, not only is the utilization of a hand sanitizer needed ahead of undertaking such applications, it can also be important that the sanitizer is with the capacity of eliminating a top population of bacteria. Antibacterial Hand Gel Studies demonstrate that if a low amount of microorganisms persist after the application of a sanitizer then your subpopulation can develop that will be resistant to future applications.
There are many commercially available hand sanitisers most abundant in commonly used types being alcohol-based liquids or gels. As with other kinds of disinfectants, hand sanitizers are effective against different microorganisms dependant on their mode of activity. With the most common alcohol based hand sanitizers, the mode of action results in bacterial cell death through cytoplasm leakage, denaturation of protein and eventual cell lysis (alcohols are one of the so-called’membrane disrupters’). The benefits of employing alcohols as hand sanitizers add a relatively inexpensive, little odour and an instant evaporation (limited residual activity results in shorter contact times). Furthermore alcohols have a proven cleansing action.
In selecting a hand sanitiser the pharmaceutical organisation or hospital will need to consider if the application is usually to be made to human skin or even to gloved hands, or even to both, and if it is needed to be sporicidal. Hand sanitisers fall under two groups: alcohol based, which are far more common, and non-alcohol based. Such considerations impact both upon cost and the and safety of the staff using the hand sanitiser since many commonly available alcohol based sanitisers may cause excessive drying of the skin; and some non-alcohol based sanitisers could be irritating to the skin. Alcohol hand sanitizers are created to avoid irritation through possessing hypoallergenic properties (colour and fragrance free) and ingredients which afford skin protection and care through re-fatting agents.
Alcohols have an extended history of good use as disinfectants because of inherent antiseptic properties against bacteria and some viruses. To work some water is required to be combined with alcohol to exert effect against microorganisms, with the top range falling between 60 and 95% (most commercial hand sanitizers are about 70%). Probably the most commonly used alcohol based hand sanitisers are Isopropyl alcohol or some type of denatured ethanol (such as Industrial Methylated Spirits). The more common non-alcohol based sanitisers contain either chlorhexidine or hexachlorophene. Additives may also be included in hand sanitizers in order to raise the antimicrobial properties.
Before entering a hospital ward or clean area hands ought to be washed using soap and water for around twenty seconds. Handwashing removes around 99% of transient microorgansisms (although it doesn’t kill them) (4). There after, whether gloves are worn or not, regular hygienic hand disinfection should take place to eliminate any subsequent transient flora and to cut back the danger of the contamination arising from resident skin flora.
The means of hand sanitisation is of great importance as the effectiveness is not only with the alcohol but additionally relates to the’rub-in’technique. As an example:
-Dispense a tiny amount of hand gel onto the palm of 1 hand by
-pressing down on the pump dispenser
-Put hands together and proceed to rub the hand gel into both hands. Pay particular awareness of the following areas:
-Back of hands
-Between webs of fingers
-Allow hands to dry, this should take a maximum of 60 seconds
Regular applications of the hand sanitizer are expected and also ahead of carrying out critical activities. The reason being alcohols are relatively volatile and do not provide a continual antimicrobial action. Although microorgansisms are taken from material like latex more readily than from skin, a regular frequency of hand sanitization should nevertheless be applied to gloves.
There are not many safety concerns with hand sanitizers and the occupational exposure is relatively low, although this may develop in enclosed spaces. Care should be taken when utilizing sanitizers near naked flames (which can occur where gas burners are utilized in laboratories).
In conclusion, hand sanitisation is a significant process of staff to follow in healthcare and pharmaceutical settings. Hand sanitization is one of the main methods for steering clear of the spread of infection in hospitals and contamination within pharmaceutical operations. This required amount of control requires the utilization of a successful hand sanitizer.